Product type
Automotive industry


United Kingdom

2007 (VX Racing)
2004 (VXR)

Related brands
VX Racing

United Kingdom
Australia (2006-09)


VXR is the branding for the high-performance trim specification, used since 2004 for models in many of Vauxhall’s car range in the United Kingdom.
Holden also uses the VXR badge for some of its high-performance cars such as the Astra VXR and Insignia VXR.
European-sourced VXR models are produced and developed by Opel Performance Center, a division of Opel. The VXR8 is produced and developed by Holden of Australia’s HSV division. The VXR brand is closely linked to VX Racing, Vauxhalls British Touring Car Championship team, and the VXR versions of the cars are race track-styled models, with high performance capabilities.


1 History
2 Current VXR models
3 Former VXR models
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

The VX Racing name was first used in 2003 instead of Vauxhall Motorsport, taking part in the BTCC with cars prepared by Triple 8 Race Engineering.
The VXR badge was first launched in the summer of 2004 at the British Motor Show with enhanced consumer versions of the Monaro and VX220.[1] In 2005 the VXR range included the Astra VXR and subsequently Zafira, Vectra, Corsa, Insignia and Meriva versions.
It was launched following discussions with the Directors (K Grice, P Marshall and N Reed) and several Regional Organisers of the Vauxhall Sports Car Club – at the time the official club for owners and enthusiasts of Vauxhall performance models[2] to replace the GSi branding (which itself replaced the GTE label) which was previously used on top-end high-performance models.
Shortly after the introduction of the VXR brand, a dedicated website and discussion forum VXRonline was set up by the Directors of the Vauxhall Sports Car Club to provide technical assistance, advice, meetings and events for all owners and enthusiasts of the VXR models.
Current VXR models[edit]
Corsa VXR

Launched 2015
1.6i Turbo 16v engine A16LER (uprated from previous Corsa VXR)
205 brake horsepower (153 kW)
LED running lights and bi-xenon headlights
VXR exterior and interior styling
Twin Remus exhaust
0-62 mph (100 km/h) 6.5secs
Maximum speed 143 mph (230 km/h)
17″ alloys (optional 18″)
ESP stability control system
Koni dampers
Traction Control
Heavily bolstered Recaro bucket seats and VXR badging
Intellilink audio

Peel Cirque

This article is an orphan, as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; try the Find link tool for suggestions. (December 2010)

Peel Cirque (69°7′S 70°31′W / 69.117°S 70.517°W / -69.117; -70.517Coordinates: 69°7′S 70°31′W / 69.117°S 70.517°W / -69.117; -70.517) is a glacial cirque lying above the southwest portion of the Roberts Ice Piedmont, situated in the northeast portion of Alexander Island, Antarctica. Photographed from the air by Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (RARE) in 1947, mapped from air photographs by Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) in 1959, and surveyed by British Antarctic Survey (BAS), 1973–77. Named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) in 1980 after Dr. David Anthony Peel, glaciologist with BAS from 1968, who worked on Alexander Island, in the years 1975 and 1976.


 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document “Peel Cirque” (content from the Geographic Names Information System).

This Alexander Island location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Guards (steamboat)

Diagram showing position of guards, engines, hull, cabins and main deck on a steamboat of the 1860s.

Guards on a steamboat were extensions of the main deck out from the boat’s main hull.[1] Guards were originally adopted for side-wheel steamboats to protect the paddle wheels and to provide a mounting point for the outer ends of the paddle wheel shafts.[1] The main deck planking extended out over the guards, and when a steamboat was fully loaded, and sunk deeply in the water, it often appeared that the edges of the guards marked the line of the hull.[1]
The size of the guards was governed, on a sidewheeler, by the width of the paddle-wheels and their housings.[1] On early steamboats operating on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers the overall width of the vessel, counting the guards, did not exceed more than about one-third of the hull width.[1] However, by the 1850s, the width of the guards in extreme cases was more than twice the width of the hull.[1]
For example, the hull of the Jacob Strader, a large vessel (905 tons) built in 1853 for the Cincinnati and Louisville Mail Line, was 27.5 feet wide, but measured over the guards the main deck was 69 feet across.[1] While the Strader was an extreme case, it was common for guards to make the main deck 50 to 75 per cent wider than the hull.[1]
Guards were also used on sternwheelers, where, with the paddle wheel being mounted at the stern, they had no structural function on the vessel.[1] On sternwheelers the guards gave additional room to store freight and fuel, allowed a passage between different parts of the boat, and provided a place for passengers to promenade.[1]
One problem with guards was that they could make the steamboat less stable, and with the type of boilers used on the Ohio-Mississippi boats, even a list of ten or twelve inches to one side could cause the boilers to malfunction, which, if prolonged, could result in an explosion.[1] This was difficult to manage, especially when for example passengers would crowd along one side of a boat to observe an attraction.[1]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hunter, Louis C. (1949), Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, pgs.91–93, ISBN 0486157784 




Raivaaja Publishing Company

Jan. 1905

(Finnish and English in later years.)

Ceased publication

164 Elm St.
Fitchburg, Massachusetts

OCLC number


Raivaaja (English: The Pioneer) was a Finnish-language newspaper published from 1905 to 2009 in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, by Raivaaja Publishing Company. For the first three decades of its existence the publication was closely associated with the Socialist Party of America (SPA). In 1936 as part of a large factional split in the SPA, the former Finnish Socialist Federation severed its connection to become the “Finnish American League for Democracy,” with Raivaaja remaining the official organ of this remodeled organization.
During its final years the publication included both English language and Finnish language content. It was last edited by Marita Cauthen from 1984 until its termination in 2009. Today the not-for-profit Raivaaja Foundation still runs a website and an online bookstore.


1 History

1.1 Establishment
1.2 Affiliations and ideology
1.3 Frequency and circulation
1.4 Final years

2 Editors-in-chief
3 Other Raivaaja Publishing Company periodicals
4 See also
5 Footnotes
6 Further reading
7 External links

The history of the broadsheet newspaper Raivaaja (The Pioneer) is traceable to an earlier publication, Pohjan Tähti (The North Star), which was started in the Finnish-American enclave of Fitchburg, Massachusetts by a private entrepreneur, Alex Heisson, who sought to launch a profitable publication to serve the community’s large and growing Finnish-speaking population.[1] Taking a calculated political risk, the aspiring capitalist publisher hired a talented socialist editor, émigré Finnish newcomer Taavi Tainio.[1] For a time the alliance seemed to be working, with the profit-seeking, nominally socialist publication quickly growing to a circulation of nearly 4,000.[1] By the end of the year differences over the function and goals of the paper led to Heisson terminating his outspoken editor.[1]
The popular Taino’s firing led to a spate of organizational activity by local Fitchburg socialists, who sought to establish a new publication with a more definite socialist orientation under Taino’s direction.[1] A mass meeting was held on January 1, 1905, at which it was decided to move forward with such a venture, and a board of dire