Preparation Canyon State Park

Preparation Canyon State Park

Iowa State Park

United States




 - elevation
1,306 ft (398 m) [1]

 - coordinates
41°53′34″N 95°54′20″W / 41.89278°N 95.90556°W / 41.89278; -95.90556Coordinates: 41°53′34″N 95°54′20″W / 41.89278°N 95.90556°W / 41.89278; -95.90556

344 acres (139 ha)


Iowa Department of Natural Resources

Location of Preparation Canyon State Park in Iowa

Website: Preparation Canyon State Park

Preparation Canyon State Park is located north of Pisgah, Iowa, United States. Located in the Loess Hills, the 344-acre (139 ha) park is a relatively undisturbed and undeveloped place. It provides space for picnicking, hiking, and camping in ten hike-in camp sites. Dramatic ridges are located on the north, south and west sides of the park, which is located on the north end of the Loess Hills State Forest.
The park is named after the former settlement of Preparation, Iowa, that was located here. It was established in the 1850s by Charles B. Thompson and his followers. They were Mormons who had left the wagon trains heading west to Utah. They believed that their existence in this life was preparation for the world to come, therefore they named their community “Preparation.”[2] A property dispute between Thompson and his followers, who were instructed to call him “Father Ephraim” after the Biblical figure of the same name, had to be settled by the Iowa Supreme Court and Thompson fled the state.[3] At one time the town had 67 houses, a post office, skating rink, and blacksmith shop, but by the turn of the 20th century the town had been deserted except for the stockyard, which closed in 1946. Walter and Martha Perrin, who were descended from the original Mormons, sold the first 82 acres (33 ha) for the park to the state of Iowa in 1934. Martha sold a further 157 acres (64 ha) to the state in 1969, and eventually the family farmstead.

^ “Preparation Canyon State Park”. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1979-04-30. Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
^ Chicago and North Western Railway Company (1908). A History of the Origin of the Place Names Connected with the Chicago & North Western and Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railways. p. 115. 
^ “Preparation Canyon Stat

Abacetus trivialoides

Abacetus trivialoides

Scientific classification







A. trivialoides

Binomial name

Abacetus trivialoides
Straneo, 1951

Abacetus trivialoides is a species of ground beetle in the subfamily Pterostichinae.[1] It was described by Straneo in 1951.[1]

^ a b “Abacetus Dejean, 1828”. Carabidae of the World. 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 

This Pterostichinae-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Guards (steamboat)

Diagram showing position of guards, engines, hull, cabins and main deck on a steamboat of the 1860s.

Guards on a steamboat were extensions of the main deck out from the boat’s main hull.[1] Guards were originally adopted for side-wheel steamboats to protect the paddle wheels and to provide a mounting point for the outer ends of the paddle wheel shafts.[1] The main deck planking extended out over the guards, and when a steamboat was fully loaded, and sunk deeply in the water, it often appeared that the edges of the guards marked the line of the hull.[1]
The size of the guards was governed, on a sidewheeler, by the width of the paddle-wheels and their housings.[1] On early steamboats operating on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers the overall width of the vessel, counting the guards, did not exceed more than about one-third of the hull width.[1] However, by the 1850s, the width of the guards in extreme cases was more than twice the width of the hull.[1]
For example, the hull of the Jacob Strader, a large vessel (905 tons) built in 1853 for the Cincinnati and Louisville Mail Line, was 27.5 feet wide, but measured over the guards the main deck was 69 feet across.[1] While the Strader was an extreme case, it was common for guards to make the main deck 50 to 75 per cent wider than the hull.[1]
Guards were also used on sternwheelers, where, with the paddle wheel being mounted at the stern, they had no structural function on the vessel.[1] On sternwheelers the guards gave additional room to store freight and fuel, allowed a passage between different parts of the boat, and provided a place for passengers to promenade.[1]
One problem with guards was that they could make the steamboat less stable, and with the type of boilers used on the Ohio-Mississippi boats, even a list of ten or twelve inches to one side could cause the boilers to malfunction, which, if prolonged, could result in an explosion.[1] This was difficult to manage, especially when for example passengers would crowd along one side of a boat to observe an attraction.[1]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hunter, Louis C. (1949), Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, pgs.91–93, ISBN 0486157784